RESOURCES

Red Light Therapy and the therapeutic application of light (photobiomodulation) has been studied across thousands of different clinical trials resulting in outstanding results with virtually no side effects. Listed below are studies in which Red Light Therapy, photobiomodulation, or LLT (low level laser therapy) have produced therapeutic benefits in a wide variety of different areas. You will find them broken up into different sections based on their benefit. 

SKIN


Elizabeth H. Page. Structure and Function of the Skin. Merck Manual.


 Avci P, Gupta A, et al. Low-level laser (light) therapy (LLLT) in skin: stimulating, healing, restoring. Seminars in Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery. Mar 2013; 32(1): 41-52.


 Wunsch A and Matuschka K. A Controlled Trial to Determine the Efficacy of Red and Near-Infrared Light Treatment in Patient Satisfaction, Reduction of Fine Lines, Wrinkles, 


Skin Roughness, and Intradermal Collagen Density Increase. Photomedicine and Laser Surgery. Feb 2014; 32(2): 93-100.


Daniel Barolet, J Clin Aesthet Dermatol, Dual Effect of Photobiomodulation on Melasma: Downregulation of Hyperpigmentation and Enhanced Solar Resistance—A Pilot Study, 2018 Apr; 11(4): 28–34.


JOINT PAIN


 Alayat MS, Aly TH, et al. Efficacy of pulsed Nd:YAG laser in the treatment of patients with knee osteoarthritis: a randomized controlled trial. Lasers in Medical Science. 2017 Apr;32(3):503-511.


 Paolillo FR, et all. Ultrasound plus low-level laser therapy for knee osteoarthritis rehabilitation: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Rheumatology International. 2018 May;38(5):785-793.


Angelova A, Ilieva EM, et al. Effectiveness of High Intensity Laser Therapy for Reduction of Pain in Knee Osteoarthritis. Pain Research and Management. 2016;2016:9163618.



Fukuda VO, et al. Short-Term Efficacy of Low-Level Laser Therapy in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Clinical Trial. 2015 Dec 6;46(5):526-33.


Bjordal JM, et al. A systematic review of low level laser therapy with location-specific doses for pain from chronic joint disorders. Australian Journal of Physiotherapy. 2003;49(2):107-16.



S GN, et al. Radiological and biochemical effects (CTX-II, MMP-3, 8, and 13) of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in chronic osteoarthritis in Al-Kharj, Saudi Arabia. Lasers in Medical Science. 2017 Feb;32(2):297-303.


de Paula Gomes CAF, et al. Incorporation of photobiomodulation therapy into a therapeutic exercise program for knee osteoarthritis: A placebo-controlled, randomized, clinical trial. 2018 Oct;50(8):819-828.


Dos Anjos LMJ et al. Modulation of immune response to induced-arthritis by low-level laser therapy. Journal of Biophotonics. 2018 Sept 11:e201800120.


Malliaropoulos N, et al. Low-level laser therapy in meniscal pathology: a double-blinded placebo-controlled trial. Lasers in Medical Science. 2013 Jul;28(4):1183-8.


Bjordal JM, Couppe C, et al. A systematic review of low level laser therapy with location-specific doses for pain from chronic joint disorders. The Australian Journal of Physiotherapy. 2003; 49(2): 107-16.


Stasinopoulos D, et al. LLLT for the management of patients with ankylosing spondylitis. Lasers in Medical Science. 2016 Apr;31(3):459-69.


Baltzer AW, Ostapczuk MS, Stosch D. Positive effects of low level laser therapy (LLLT) on Bouchard's and Heberden's osteoarthritis. Lasers in Surgical Medicine. 2016 Jul; 48(5):498-504.


Alfredo PP, Bjordal JM, et al. Efficacy of low level laser therapy associated with exercises in knee osteoarthritis: a randomized double-blind study. Clinical Rehabilitation. Jun 2012; 26(6): 523-33.


Brosseau L, Welch V, et al. Low level laser therapy for osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis: a meta-analysis. The Journal of Rheumatology. Aug 2000; 27(8): 1961-9


 Paolillo AR, Paolillo FR, et al. Synergic effects of ultrasound and laser on the pain relief in women with hand osteoarthritis. Lasers in Medical Science. Jan 2015; 30(1): 279-86..


FAT LOSS


Caruso-Davis MK, Guillot TS, Podichetty VK, Mashtalir N, Dhurandhar NV, Dubuisson O, Yu Y. Efficacy of low-level laser therapy for body contouring and spot fat reduction. Obes Surg. 2011. Jun;21(6):722-9.


Peterson P.S., Lei X, Wolf RM. CTRP7 deletion attenuates obesity-linked glucose intolerance, adipose tissue inflammation, and hepatic stress. American Journal of Physiology. Feb 2017;10:1152.


 Figueiro MG, Plitnick B, and Rea MS. Light Modulates Leptin and Ghrelin in Sleep-Restricted Adults. International Journal of Endocrinology. 2012.


da Silveira Campos RM, Dâmaso AR, et al. The effects of exercise training associated with low-level laser therapy on biomarkers of adipose tissue transdifferentiation in obese women. Lasers in Medical Science. 2018 Aug;33(6):1245-1254.



Jackson RF, Dedo DD, Roche GC, et al. Low-level laser therapy as a non-invasive approach for body contouring: a randomized, controlled study. Lasers in Surgery and Medicine. Dec 2009;41(10):99-809.


McRae E and Boris J. Independent evaluation of low-level laser therapy at 635 nm for non-invasive body contouring of the waist, hips, and thighs. Lasers in Surgery and Medicine. Jan 2013;45(1):1-7.


Sene-Fiorese M, Duarte FO, et al. The potential of phototherapy to reduce body fat, insulin resistance and "metabolic inflexibility" related to obesity in women undergoing weight loss treatment. Lasers Surg Med. 2015 Oct;47(8):634-42.


Peterson P.S., Lei X, Wolf RM. CTRP7 deletion attenuates obesity-linked glucose intolerance, adipose tissue inflammation, and hepatic stress. American Journal of Physiology. Feb 2017;10:1152.


Duarte FO, et al. Can low-level laser therapy (LLLT) associated with an aerobic plus resistance training change the cardiometabolic risk in obese women? A placebo-controlled clinical trial. J Photochem Photobiol B. 2015 Dec;153:103-10.


Miranda EF, Tomazoni SS, et al. When is the best moment to apply photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) when associated to a treadmill endurance-training program? A randomized, triple-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Lasers in Med Science. 2018 May;33(4):719-727.



Paolillo FR, Borghi-Silva A, et al. New treatment of cellulite with infrared-LED illumination applied during high-intensity treadmill training. J Cosmet Laser Ther. 2011 Aug;13(4):166-71.



Traumatic Brain Injuries


Christopher T., Jeneita B., Matthew B., Likang X. “Traumatic Brain Injury - Related Emergency Department Visits, Hospitalizations, and Deaths - United States, 2007 and 2013” Center for Disease Control and Prevention. 2017, March; 66(9); 1-16


Concussion Legacy Foundation


"Study: CTE Found In Nearly All Donated NFL Player Brains". npr.org. Retrieved 2017-07-25.


Michael H. “Shining light on the head: Photobiomodulation for brain disorders” BBA Clinical. 2016, December; 6: 113-124. dio: 10.1016/j.bbacli.2016.09.002


Adam K. “Aaron Hernandez suffered from most severe CTE ever found in a person his age” The Washington Post. 2017, November 9.


Margaret N., Michael H. “Traumatic Brain Injury: A Major Medical Problem That Could Be Treated Using Transcranial, Red/Near-Infrared LED Photobiomodulation” Photomedicine and Laser Surgery. 2015, September; 33(9): 443-446. dio: 10.1089/pho.2015.3986


 Joao S., Wellington P., Manoel T. “Transcranial light-emitting diode therapy for neuropsychological improvement after traumatic brain injury: new perspective for diffuse axonal lesion management” Medical Devices (Auckland, N.Z.). 2018; 11:139-146. dio: 10.2147/MDER.S155356


Ken B. "Aaron Hernandez Found to Have Severe C.T.E." The New York Times. 2017, September 21


Naeser M., Zafonte R, Krengel MH, Martin PI, Frazier J, Hamblin MR, Knight JA, Meehan WP, Baker EH. “Significant improvements in cognitive performance post-transcranial, red/near-infrared light-emitting diode treatments in chronic, mild traumatic brain injury: open-protocol study” Journal of Neurotrauma. 2014, June; 31(11): 1008-1017. Doi: 10.1089/neu.2013.3244


Inflammation


Hamblin M. “Mechanisms and Mitochondrial Redox Signaling in Photobiomodulation” Photochemistry and Photobiology. 2018, 94:199-212. 2017 October 31. doi: 10.1111/php.12864


Douris P., Southard V., Ferrigi R., Grauer J., Katz D., Nascimento C., Podbielski P. “Effect of Phototherapy on delayed onset muscle soreness”. Photomed Laser Surg. 2006 June ;24(3):377-82. 


Hamblin M. “Mechanisms and applications of the anti-inflammatory effects of photobiomodulation”. AIMS Biophys. 2017; 4(3): 337–361. doi: 10.3934/biophy.2017.3.337


Langella L., Casalechi H., Tomazoni S., Johnson D., Albertini R., Pallotta R., Marcos R., de Carvalho P., Leal-Junior E., “Photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) on acute pain and inflammation in patients who underwent total hip arthroplasty-a randomized, triple-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial”. Lasers Med Sci. 2018. Jun 16. doi: 10.1007/s10103-018-2558-x.


Berk M., Williams L., Jacka F., O’Neil A., Pasco J., Moylan S., Allen N., Stuart A., Hayley A., Byrne M., Maes M. “So depression is an inflammatory disease, but where does the inflammation come from?” BMC Med. 2013; 11: 200. Sept 12. dio: 10.1186/1741-7015-11-200 


Leal Junior E., Lopes-Martins R., Frigo L., De Marchi T., Rossi R., de Godoi V., Tomazoni S., Silva D., Basso M., Filho P., de Valls Corsetti F., Iversen V., Bjordal J. “Effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in the development of exercise-induced skeletal muscle fatigue and changes in biochemical markers related to postexercise recovery”. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2010 August ;40(8):524-32. doi: 10.2519/jospt.2010.3294.


Servetto N., Cremonezzi D., Simes JC., Moya M., Soriano F., Palma JA., Campana VR. “Evaluation of inflammatory biomarkers associated with oxidative stress and histological assessment of low-level laser therapy in experimental myopathy”. Lasers Surg Med. 2010 August ;42(6):577-83. doi: 10.1002/lsm.20910. 


Lee JH., Chiang MH., Chen PH., Ho ML., Lee HE., Wang Yh. “Anti-inflammatory effects of low-level laser therapy on human periodontal ligament cells: in vitro study”. Lasers Med Sci. 2018; 33(3): 469–477. 2017 Nov 7. Doi: 10.1007/s10103-017-2376-6


 Muscle Recovery


Leal Junior EC, Lopes-Martins RA, Dalan F, et al. Effect of 655-nm low-level laser therapy on exercise-induced skeletal muscle fatigue in humans. Photomed Laser Surg. 2008 Oct;26(5):419-24.


Rizzi CF, Mauriz JL, Freitas Correa DS, et al. Effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on the nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB signaling pathway in traumatized muscle. Lasers Surg Med. 2006;38:704–713.


 Tullberg M, Alstergren PJ, Ernberg MM. Effects of low-power laser exposure on masseter muscle pain and microcirculation. Pain. 2003;105:89–96.


Avni D, Levkovitz S, Maltz L, Oron U. Protection of skeletal muscles from ischemic injury: low-level laser therapy increases antioxidant activity. Photomed Laser Surg. 2005;23:273–277. 


Douris P, Southard V, et al. Effect of phototherapy on delayed onset muscle soreness. Photomedicine and Laser Surgery. 2006 Jun;24(3):377-82.


Antonialli FC, De Marchi T, Tomazoni SS, et al. Phototherapy in skeletal muscle performance and recovery after exercise: effect of combination of super-pulsed laser and light-emitting diodes. Lasers in Medical Science. 2014 Nov;29(6):1967-76.


De Marchi T, Leal Junior EC, et al. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in human progressive-intensity running: effects on exercise performance, skeletal muscle status, and oxidative stress. Lasers in Medical Science. 2012 Jan;27(1):231-6.


Borges LS, et al. Light-emitting diode phototherapy improves muscle recovery after a damaging exercise. Lasers in Medical Science. 2014 May;29(3):1139-44.[8] Paolillo FR, Corazza AV, et al. Phototherapy during treadmill training improves quadriceps performance in postmenopausal women. Climacteric. 2014 Jun;17(3):285-93. 


Paolillo FR, Milan JC, Aniceto IV, et al. Effects of infrared-LED illumination applied during high-intensity treadmill training in postmenopausal women. Photomedicine in Laser Surg. 2011 Sep;29(9):639-45.


 Baroni BM, et al. Low level laser therapy before eccentric exercise reduces muscle damage markers in humans. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2010 Nov;110(4):789-96.


Bjordal JM, Lopes-Martins RA, Iversen VV. A randomised, placebo controlled trial of low level laser therapy for activated achilles tendinitis with microdialysis measurement of peritendinous prostaglandin E2 concentrations. Br J Sports Med. 2006;40:76–80. 


Aimbire F, Albertini R, Pacheco MT, et al. Low-level laser therapy induces dose-dependent reduction of TNF alpha levels in acute inflammation. Photomed Laser Surg. 2006;24:33–37.


Rossato M, et al. Time Response of Photobiomodulation Therapy on Muscular Fatigue in Humans. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2018 Nov;32(11):3285-3293.


 Hemvani N, Chitnis DS, George M, Chammania S. In vitro effect of nitrogen and He-Ne laser on the apoptosis of human polymorphonuclear cells from burn cases and healthy volunteers. Photomed Laser Surg. 2005;23:476–479.


 X. H. Li. Laser in rhe Department of Traumatology. Laser Therapy. 1990; Vol. 2 Issue 3, pp. 119-122.


 Machado AF, et al. Phototherapy on Management of Creatine Kinase Activity in General Versus Localized Exercise: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Clinical Journal of Sports Medicine. 2018 Jun 21 


Leal Junior EC, Lopes-Martins RA, Rossi RP, et al. Effect of cluster multi-diode light emitting diode therapy (LEDT) on exercise-induced skeletal muscle fatigue and skeletal muscle recovery in humans. Lasers in Surgical Medicine. 2009 Oct;41(8):572-7.[21] De Marchi T, Leal-Junior ECP, et al. Photobiomodulation therapy before futsal matches improves the staying time of athletes in the court and accelerates post-exercise recovery. Lasers in Medical Science. 2018 Sep 27


Leal-Junior EC, Vanin AA, Miranda EF, et al. Effect of phototherapy (low-level laser therapy and light-emitting diode therapy) on exercise performance and markers of exercise recovery: a systematic review with meta-analysis. Lasers in Medical Science. 2015 Feb;30(2):925-39.


Paolillo FR, Corazza AV, et al. Infrared LED irradiation applied during high-intensity treadmill training improves maximal exercise tolerance in postmenopausal women: a 6-month longitudinal study. Lasers in Medical Science. 2013 Feb;28(2):415-22.


de Paiva PR, Tomazoni SS, et al. Photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) and/or cryotherapy in skeletal muscle restitution, what is better? A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Lasers in Medical Science. 2016 Dec;31(9):1925-1933. 


Pinto HD, Vanin AA, et al. Photobiomodulation Therapy Improves Performance and Accelerates Recovery of High-Level Rugby Players in Field Test: A Randomized, Crossover, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Study. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2016 Dec;30(12):3329-3338.


 Testosterone 


Vladimirovich Moskvin S., Ivanovich Apolikhin O. Effectiveness of low level laser therapy for treating male infertility. Biomedicine (Taipei). 2018 June; 8(2):7.


Avci P, Gupta A, et al. “Low-level laser (light) therapy (LLLT) in skin: stimulating, healing, restoring.” Seminars in Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery. Mar 2013; 32(1): 41-52.


Ban Frangez H., Frangez I., Verdenik I., Jansa V., Virant Klun I. Photobiomodulation with light-emitting diodes improves sperm motility in men with asthenozoospermia. Laser in Medical Science, 2015 Jan;30(1):235-40.


Fagiolini A et al. Lack of interest in sex successfully treated by exposure to bright light. European College of Neuropsychopharmacology. Sept 2016.[6] Salman Yazdi, R., Bakhshi, S., Jannat Alipoor, F. et al. Effect of 830-nm diode laser irradiation on human sperm motility. Lasers Med Sci. (2014) 29: 97. 


Chow KW, Preece D, Burns MW. Effect of red light on optically trapped spermatozoa. Biomedical Optics Express. (2017) Aug 23;8(9):4200-4205.


 European College of Neuropsychopharmacology (ECNP). "Lack of interest in sex successfully treated by exposure to bright light." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 18 September 2016.


Preece D., Chow KW, Gomez-Godinez V., Gustafson K., et al. Red light improves spermatozoa motility and does not induce oxidative DNA damage. Scientific Reports. 2017 Apr 20;7:46480. 


Ahn JC, Kim YH and Rhee CK. The effects of low level laser therapy (LLLT) on the testis in elevating serum testosterone level in rats. Biomedical Research. 2013; 24(1):28-32.


 Yeste M., Codony F., Estrada E., Lleonart M., et al. Specific LED-based red light photo-stimulation procedures improve overall sperm function and reproductive performance of boar ejaculates. Scientific Reports. 2016 Mar 2;6:22569.


 Corral-Baqués M., Rigau T., Rivera M., Rodríguez JE, Rigau J. Effect of 655-nm diode laser on dog sperm motility. Lasers in Med Science. 2005;20(1):28-34.


  Biswas NM, Biswas R, et al. Effect of continuous light on spermatogenesis and testicular steroidogenesis in rats: Possible involvement of alpha 2u-globulin. Nepal Med Coll J. 2013;15(1):62-64.


 Myerson, A. Influence of ultraviolet radiation on excretion of sex hormones in the male. Endocrinology. 1939;25:7-12.